Espalion Perse: South Porch Tympanum

Espalion Perse South Porch
Espalion Perse South Porch

The tympanum of the church of Perse at Espalion features a carved Romanesque relief. Located above its southern porch entrance and sculpted in the distinctive red sandstone in which the whole building is constructed, the theme is both singular and perplexing. The subject combines the Effusion of the Holy Spirit, the Harrowing of Hell and the Resurrection of the Dead and is unique in Romanesque portal sculpture.

Espalion Perse South Porch
Espalion Perse South Porch Tympanum

The tympanum is set within four archivolts, two of which have carved voussoirs. The outer archivolt features the archangel Gabriel and Raphael and a crowned figure. This latter bears a hammer in the right hand, an attribute of Charles Martel, victor of the battle of Poitiers against the Saracens and founder of the Carolingian dynasty. Eleven angels are set within the inner register each holding an open book.

The tympanum itself is divided into three distinct registers. At the top, the sun and moon are set on either side of a motif of three clouds from which emanate eight rays and a dove. These are the Holy Spirit and the Tongues of Fire as described in the Acts of the Apostles.

Espalion Perse South Porch
Espalion Perse South Porch Tympanum Apostles

The notion that this might represent the Pentecost, however is belied by the scene beneath, showing the Virgin surrounded by ten Apostles. These ten correspond with the number present when Christ appeared on Easter day when Thomas and Judas were no longer present and the disciples first experienced the Holy Ghost.

Espalion Perse South Porch
Espalion Perse South Porch Tympanum The Sun

Further confirmation that the scene depicted is Easter can be drawn from the representation of the Sun which contains a male figure bearing a wheat sheaf. The Old Testament gives an account of the Jewish feast days which prescribes the presentation of the wheat-sheaf and the offering of the Lamb on the the day after Passover, an unambiguous allusion to Easter.

Espalion Perse South Porch
Espalion Perse South Porch Tympanum The Apostles

Closer inspection reveals that inclusion of the symbol of the wheat-sheaf also serves the purpose of alluding to the Pentecost itself. According to Leviticus, the offering of the wheat-sheaf inaugurated the Counting of the Omer.  This marked the forty-nine days separating the Passover from the feast of Shavuot, which in the Christian calendar is the Pentecost, when the disciples received, once more the Holy Ghost and their Apostolic Mission.

The connection becomes more subtle when considered in the light of New Testament identification of the wheat grain as a symbol of resurrection.

Espalion Perse South Porch
Espalion Perse South Porch Lintel The Harrowing of Hell and The Weighing of Souls

Depicted on the lower register the central image is the Weighing of Souls. On either side, Christ and Satan. Christ in a mandorla and surrounded by the Tetramorph on the right and on the left, Satan surrounded by the figures of an owl, a crocodile, a pig and a centaur in an antithetical parody of the Tetramorph.

Espalion Perse South Porch
Espalion Perse South Porch Lintel Satan and the Leviathan

This latter distortion is part of the almost unaccountable strangeness which pervades this frieze. Closer inspection reveals that much of the imagery has been inverted. Christ in Majesty, ordinarily the central figure of any large scale monumental image is at the far right of the frieze and Satan to the left. The Living Beasts of the Tetramorph surrounding Christ’s mandorla are depicted in the opposite positions of their standard iconography and yet Christ is holding his right hand in benediction and his left holds the Book of Life according to the traditional model. The Jaws of the Leviathan are ejecting the human figure from the entrance to Hell rather than swallowing as would normally be shown in such a scene.

Espalion Perse South Porch
Espalion Perse South Porch Lintel Christ In The Underworld

The explanation for this anomalous imagery lies in the subject matter which is not the Last Judgment but Christ’s triumphal Descent into the Land of the Dead in the two days between the Crucifixion and the Resurrection. Sometimes known as the Harrowing of Hell, it was rarely presented in Romanesque sculpture. As an article of faith, it was encapsulated in the Apostle’s Creed formulated around the end of the fourth century. Thus the lower register depicts the Elect before the End of Time, partaking of the joys of Paradise in the Present.

Although it is not clear what the medieval conception of reflections was, it would appear that some of the fears of mirrors as magical objects inspired the rendering of the Land of the Dead at Espalion.

The Perse tympanum is closely related to the great west porch tympanum of Conques, which shows the Elect in the Bosom of Abraham as they await the Day of Judgment. It is worth noting that Perse was a dependent priory of Conques and was, at the time, similarly dedicated to Sainte Foy.

Sources and Biblio: Jean-Claude Fau, Rouergue Roman Zodiaque, La Nuit des Temps 3rd Ed.

Pierre Séguret,

Biblical References: Acts of the Apostles 2:3 “And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them”.

John 20:22, “And when he had said this, he breathed on them and saith unto them, receive ye the Holy Ghost.”

Leviticus 23:12 “Ye shall offer that day when ye have the sheaf, and the Lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto the Lord”.

John 12:24 “Verily, verily I say unto you, except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die it abideth alone: but if it die it bringeth forth much fruit.”

I Peter 4:6 “For for this cause was the gospel preached also to them that are dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to God in the spirit.”

Ephesians 4:9 “(Now that he ascended, what is it but that he also descended first into the lower parts of the earth?”

The Apostle’s Creed “Jesus Christ … was crucified, died, and was buried; he descended to the dead. On the third day he rose again”.


Leave a Reply